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Cancer Research and Treatment > Volume 45(1); 2013 > Article
Jung, Won, Kong, Oh, Seo, and Lee: Cancer Statistics in Korea: Incidence, Mortality, Survival and Prevalence in 2010

Abstract

Purpose

This article gives an overview of nationwide cancer statistics, including incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence, and their trends in Korea based on 2010 cancer incidence data.

Materials and Methods

Incidence data from 1993 to 2010 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and vital status was followed until 31 December 2011. Mortality data from 1983 to 2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Crude and age-standardized rates for incidence, mortality, prevalence, and relative survival were calculated.

Results

In total, 202,053 cancer cases and 72,046 cancer deaths occurred during 2010, and 960,654 prevalent cancer cases were identified in Korea as of 1 January 2011. The incidence of all cancers combined showed an annual increase of 3.3% from 1999 to 2010. The incidences of liver and cervical cancers have decreased while those of thyroid, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers have increased. Notably, thyroid cancer, which is the most common cancer in Korea, increased by 24.2% per year rapidly in both sexes. The mortality of all cancers combined showed a decrease by 2.7% annually from 2002 to 2010. Five-year relative survival rates of patients who were diagnosed with cancer from 2006 to 2011 had improved by 22.9% compared with those from 1993 to 1995.

Conclusion

While the overall cancer incidence in Korea has increased rapidly, age-standardized cancer mortality rates have declined since 2002 and survival has improved.

Introduction

Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Korea since 1983 [1] and is associated with the largest disease burden [2]. More than 190,000 new cancer cases are diagnosed annually in Korea, and one in four deaths results from cancer [3,4]. This article provides an overview of nationwide cancer statistics, including the incidence, mortality, prevalence and survival rates, and their trends.

1. Data sources

The Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea, initiated a nationwide hospital-based cancer registry called the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) as early as 1980. The registry collected 80-90% of cancer cases annually from more than 180 training hospitals throughout the country. In 1999, the KCCR expanded cancer registration to cover the entire population under the Population-Based Regional Cancer Registry program. Details of the history, objectives and activities of the KCCR have been documented [5]. Incidence data from 1999 to 2010 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database (KNCI DB). The completeness of incidence data for 2010 was 97.1%, as determined by the Ajiki method [6].
Cancer cases were classified according to the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd edition [7] and converted according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10) [8]. The survival analysis used 1,992,568 cancer cases first diagnosed during 1993-2010 from the KNCI DB, and followed vital status until 31 December 2011.
Mortality data from 1983-2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea [1]. Cause of death was coded and classified according to ICD-10. Population data were also obtained from Statistics Korea using the resident registration population on July 1 of specified years.

2. Analysis

Crude rates (CRs) and age-specific rates of cancer incidence and mortality were calculated. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) were determined using the world standard population [9]. Cumulative risks of cancer, which represent the probability of developing cancer during one's lifetime, were also calculated. Changes in the annual ASRs of cancer incidence were examined by calculating the annual percentage change over a time period as (exp(b)-1)×100, where b is the slope of the regression of log ASR for a given calendar year [10].
Prevalence was also calculated to assess the cancer burden, which reflects new and pre-existing cancer patients diagnosed during a given period of time still alive on an index date. Using cancer incidence database data from 1999 to 2010, we defined prevalent cases on January 1, 2011 as patients who were diagnosed between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2010 and who were alive on January 1, 2011. We calculated limited-duration prevalences, such as the 1- and 5-year prevalences. For example, the 5-year prevalence was calculated as the number of people alive on January 1, 2011 who had been diagnosed with cancer within the previous 5 years. We applied this counting method using the SEER*Stat software [11] to calculate the number of cases, while adjusting for patients lost to follow-up [10].
The survival duration for each case was determined as the interval between the date of initial diagnosis and the date of death, date of loss to follow-up, or closing date for follow-up. Observed survival rates were calculated using the life-table method and relative survival rates by the Ederer II method [12] using an algorithm written in SAS by Dickman [13], with some minor modifications.

Selected Findings

1. Incidence

Table 1 presents the overall number of incident cancer cases, deaths, and prevalent cases during 2010 in Korea by sex and cancer site. In 2010, 202,053 incident cancer cases and 72,046 deaths were identified. As of 1 January 2011, 960,654 prevalent cancer cases diagnosed between 1999 and 2010 were identified. In 2010, the cumulative risk of developing cancer during one's lifetime was 37.6% for males and 33.3% for females.
Table 2 shows cancer incidence rates in 2010 by sex. The CRs of all sites combined in 2010 were 412.4 and 397.7 per 100,000 in males and females, respectively. The ASRs of all sites combined were 324.1 and 268.7 per 100,000 in males and females, respectively. In males, the five leading primary cancer sites were the stomach (CR, 80.8; ASR, 62.3), colon and rectum (CR, 62.5; ASR, 48.6), lung (CR, 58.7; ASR, 46.5), liver (CR, 47.3; ASR, 36.0), and prostate (CR, 31.4; ASR, 25.3), which together accounted for 68.1% of all newly diagnosed cancers in 2010. In females, the most common cancer sites were the thyroid (CR, 119.6; ASR, 87.4), breast (CR, 57.1; ASR, 39.8), colon and rectum (CR, 40.8; ASR, 25.3), stomach (CR, 39.8; ASR, 24.9), lung (CR, 24.3; ASR, 14.3), and liver (CR, 16.5; ASR, 10.2), which together accounted for 70.8% of all newly diagnosed cancers. Thyroid cancer alone accounted for 30.1% of incident cases (n=29,790) in females in 2010.

2. Mortality

In total, 72,046 cancer deaths were reported in Korea during 2010, accounting for 28.2% of all deaths (Table 3). In 2010, the CRs for all sites combined were 181.0 and 107.8 per 100,000 in males and females, respectively. The ASRs of all sites combined were 144.7 and 61.6 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively. Cancers of the lung, liver, stomach, and colon/rectum were the most common fatal cancers, together accounting for about 61.8% of all cancer deaths in 2010 (Table 4).
In males, the five leading fatal primary cancer sites in 2010 were the lung (CR, 45.7; ASR, 36.6), liver (CR, 33.4; ASR, 25.8), stomach (CR, 26.1; ASR, 20.7), colon and rectum (CR, 17.3; ASR, 14.0) and pancreas (CR, 9.3; ASR, 7.4). In women, lung cancer (CR, 16.9; ASR, 9.1) was the most fatal cancer site in 2010, followed by the stomach (CR, 14.1; ASR, 7.8), colon and rectum (CR, 13.3; ASR, 7.3), liver (CR, 11.5; ASR, 6.6), and breast (CR, 7.5; ASR, 5.0).

3. Trends in cancer incidence

Tables 5-7 present the cancer incidence rates during 1999-2010 in Korea for all sites combined and for selected sites. The incidence for all sites combined increased by 3.3% annually (1.5% in males, 5.3% in females) from 1999 to 2010.
The rapid increase in cancer incidence is also illustrated in Fig. 1. As shown in Fig. 2, the incidence rates of colorectal and thyroid cancers have continued to increase in both sexes, as have those of prostate cancer in males and breast cancer in females. In contrast, the incidences of liver cancer in both sexes, lung cancer in males and cervical cancer in females have decreased. Stomach cancer incidence rates remained the same in males and females. One notable trend was the sharp (24.2% annual) increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in both sexes. Improvements in the sensitivity of diagnostic techniques for thyroid cancer, such as the advent of ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration, have enabled the detection of subclinical disease. Therefore, the increased incidence of thyroid cancer may reflect the identification of previously undetected disease with these improved diagnostic techniques and increased screening rates, rather than a true increase in the occurrence of thyroid cancer [14-17]. Furthermore, due to the construction of a 1999-2010 KNCI DB, the completeness of the Korea cancer registry data has improved gradually, and this may have contributed, in part, to the gradual overall increases in cancer incidence, particularly among elderly patients.

4. Age-specific incidence rates

Table 8 presents the most common cancer sites by sex and age group in 2010. Leukemia and thyroid cancer were the most common cancer in both sexes in subjects aged 0-14 and 15-34 years, respectively. For males, stomach cancer was the most common cancer in 35-64-year-olds, while lung cancer was more frequent among patients aged ≥65 years. Thyroid cancer was the most common cancer in middle-aged Korean females (age, 35 to 64 years), and colorectal cancer was the most common cancer among older females (≥65 years).
Fig. 3 shows the age-specific incidence rates for selected cancers in males and females in 2010. The data show that the incidences of stomach, lung, liver, and colorectal cancers increased gradually with age. Incidences of breast and thyroid cancers in females were highest in those in their late 40s and early 50s, respectively, and leveled off thereafter. This pattern is different from those in Western countries [18].

5. Trends in cancer mortality

Figs. 1 and 4 show the trends in cancer deaths for all sites combined and for selected sites. ASRs of mortality showed an annual decrease of 2.7% for all sites combined in both sexes since 2002. Lung cancer surpassed stomach cancer as the leading cause of cancer deaths in 1999 and is expected to account for 21.7% of all cancer deaths in 2010. The ASRs of mortality due to lung cancer have decreased slightly in males since 2001, but have increased in females. The ASRs of mortality due to stomach and cervical cancers have decreased continuously. Along with the significant increases in colorectal, prostate and female breast cancer incidence rates, the mortality rates of these cancers have also continued to increase.

6. Survival rates

Table 9 shows the 5-year relative survival rates for four diagnosis periods: 1993-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, and 2006-2010. Patients who were diagnosed with cancer in the most recent period (2006-2010) had a 5-year relative survival rate of 64.1% for all sites combined in both sexes (55.4% in males and 73.3% in females). When compared with earlier periods, notable improvements in the 5-year relative survival rates were observed for all sites combined. The higher cancer survival rate in females than in males may be partly explained by cancers common in females (e.g., thyroid, breast, and cervix cancers) having relatively good prognoses.
When examined by year of diagnosis and cancer site, the 5-year relative survival rates appeared to be higher for most major cancers in patients diagnosed during 2006-2010 compared with those diagnosed during 1993-1995, with the exception of pancreatic cancer. The greatest improvements were seen in prostate cancer, stomach cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, and colorectal cancer. The improving survival rates could be attributable to early detection and improved treatments [19, 20], but this requires further evaluation. Only pancreatic cancer showed no improvement in 5-year relative survival rate compared with 1993-1995. A lack of progress in early detection and treatment could explain the observed absence of improvement in the survival rate for pancreatic cancer [21].

7. Prevalence rates

Table 10 shows the cancer prevalent rates on January 1, 2011 in Korea by sex and cancer site. The CRs of cancer prevalence for all sites combined were 1,739.0 and 2,113.4 per 100,000 in males and females, respectively, and the ASRs of cancer prevalence for all sites combined were 1,369.7 and 1,446.7 per 100,000 in males and females, respectively. In males, the five leading primary sites of cancer for prevalence were the stomach (CR, 451.7; ASR, 349.3), colon and rectum (CR, 323.2; ASR, 252.4), prostate (CR, 141.6; ASR, 114.1), liver (CR, 130.3; ASR, 100.1), and lung (CR, 115.2; ASR, 90.8), which together accounted for 66.8% of all prevalent cancer cases. In females, the most common cancer sites were the thyroid (CR, 596.9; ASR, 427.5), breast (CR, 413.4; ASR, 286.0), stomach (CR, 229.1; ASR, 144.6), colon and rectum (CR, 222.2; ASR, 138.7), cervix (CR, 154.6; ASR, 104.5), and lung (CR, 59.4; ASR, 37.4), which together accounted for 79.3% of all prevalent cancer cases.
Fig. 5 shows prevalence by time since diagnosis with cancer. For all cancers combined, the 1-2-year prevalence represented 33.0% of all prevalent cases. The 1-2-year prevalence, as a percentage of the total prevalence, was highest for thyroid cancer (21.4%), followed by stomach cancer (15.6%) and colorectal cancer (13.9%), which had high incidence rates and good prognoses. For all cancers combined, the 2-5-year and >5-year prevalences accounted for 31.6% and 35.4%, respectively, of the total prevalence in both sexes. The long-term prevalences of lung and liver cancers were relatively low due to their low survival rates.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a research grant from the National Cancer Center (no. 1310220), Republic of Korea. The authors are indebted to Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR)-affiliated hospitals, non-KCCR-affiliated hospitals, 11 regional cancer registries (the Busan, Daegu & Gyeongbuk, Gwangju & Jeonnam, Incheon, Daejeon & Chungnam, Ulsan, Gangwon, Chungbuk, Jeonbuk, Gyeongnam and Jejudo cancer registries), the National Health Insurance Corporation and Statistics Korea for data collection.

Conflicts of Interest

Conflict of interest relevant to this article was not reported.

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Fig. 1
Annual age-standardized cancer incidence and death rates for all sites during 1983-2010 in Korea by sex. Age standardization was based on the world standard population.
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Fig. 2
Trends in age-standardized incidences of selected cancers during 1999-2010 in Korea by sex. Age standardization was based on the world standard population. (A) Male. (B) Female.
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Fig. 3
Age-specific incidence rates of major cancers during 2010 in Korea. (A) Male. (B) Female.
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Fig. 4
Annual age-standardized mortalities of selected cancers during 1983-2010 in Korea by sex. Age standardization was based on the world standard population. (A) Male. (B) Female.
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Fig. 5
Numbers of prevalent cases for major cancer sites on January 1, 2011 in Korea by time since diagnosis.
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Table 1
Numbers of incident cancer cases, deaths, and prevalent cancer cases during 2010 in Korea by sex
Site/Type New cases
Deaths
Prevalent casesa)
Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female
All sites 202,053 103,014 99,039 72,046 45,209 26,837 960,654 434,365 526,289
Lip, oral cavity and pharynx 2,695 1,916 779 963 742 221 13,961 9,464 4,497
Esophagus 2,199 2,017 182 1,352 1,254 98 6,303 5,689 614
Stomach 30,092 20,179 9,913 10,032 6,512 3,520 169,868 112,811 57,057
Colon and rectum 25,782 15,612 10,170 7,645 4,322 3,323 136,055 80,717 55,338
Liver 15,921 11,818 4,103 11,205 8,350 2,855 43,351 32,542 10,809
Gallbladderb) 4,877 2,532 2,345 3,502 1,758 1,744 12,349 6,337 6,012
Pancreas 4,637 2,505 2,132 4,306 2,323 1,983 5,583 3,052 2,531
Larynx 1,144 1,071 73 416 383 33 7,583 7,120 463
Lung 20,711 14,650 6,061 15,623 11,416 4,207 43,564 28,784 14,780
Breast 14,277 69 14,208 1,868 10 1,858 103,418 472 102,946
Cervix uteri 3,857 - 3,857 956 - 956 38,488 - 38,488
Corpus uteri 1,752 - 1,752 222 - 222 11,935 - 11,935
Ovary 1,981 - 1,981 895 - 895 11,782 - 11,782
Prostate 7,848 7,848 - 1,328 1,328 - 35,372 35,372 -
Testis 206 206 - 9 9 - 1,774 1,774 -
Kidney 3,598 2,520 1,078 797 562 235 20,203 13,639 6,564
Bladder 3,415 2,752 663 1,100 822 278 21,921 17,823 4,098
Brain and CNS 1,715 922 793 1,182 645 537 7,527 3,951 3,576
Thyroid 36,021 6,231 29,790 356 94 262 174,918 26,264 148,654
Hodgkin lymphoma 243 167 76 48 30 18 1,609 1,035 574
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 3,940 2,171 1,769 1,457 817 640 20,838 11,394 9,444
Multiple myeloma 1,070 563 507 763 399 364 3,073 1,624 1,449
Leukemia 2,684 1,540 1,144 1,618 922 696 12,287 6,793 5,494
Other and ill-defined 11,388 5,725 5,663 4,403 2,511 1,892 56,892 27,708 29,184

CNS, central nervous system. a)Limited-duration prevalent cases on January 1, 2011. These are patients who were diagnosed between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2010 and who were known alive on January 1, 2011. Multiple primary cancer cases were counted multiple times, b)Includes the gallbladder and other/unspecified parts of the biliary tract.

Table 2
Crude and age-standardized cancer incidence rates during 2010 in Korea by sex
Site/Type Crude incidence rate per 100,000
Age-standardized incidence rate
per 100,000a)
Both Male Female Both Male Female
All sites 405.1 412.4 397.7 286.4 324.1 268.7
Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx 5.4 7.7 3.1 3.9 5.9 2.1
Esophagus 4.4 8.1 0.7 3.1 6.4 0.4
Stomach 60.3 80.8 39.8 41.8 62.3 24.9
Colon and rectum 51.7 62.5 40.8 35.9 48.6 25.3
Liver 31.9 47.3 16.5 22.3 36.0 10.2
Gallbladderb) 9.8 10.1 9.4 6.5 8.1 5.4
Pancreas 9.3 10.0 8.6 6.3 7.9 4.9
Larynx 2.3 4.3 0.3 1.6 3.4 0.2
Lung 41.5 58.7 24.3 28.0 46.5 14.3
Breast 28.6 0.3 57.1 20.2 0.2 39.8
Cervix uteri 7.7 - 15.5 5.5 - 10.6
Corpus uteri 3.5 - 7.0 2.5 - 5.0
Ovary 4.0 - 8.0 2.9 - 5.7
Prostate 15.7 31.4 - 10.7 25.3 -
Testis 0.4 0.8 - 0.4 0.8 -
Kidney 7.2 10.1 4.3 5.2 7.8 3.0
Bladder 6.8 11.0 2.7 4.6 8.7 1.5
Brain and CNS 3.4 3.7 3.2 3.0 3.4 2.6
Thyroid 72.2 24.9 119.6 52.7 18.3 87.4
Hodgkin lymphoma 0.5 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.3
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 7.9 8.7 7.1 6.0 7.1 5.0
Multiple myeloma 2.1 2.3 2.0 1.5 1.7 1.3
Leukemia 5.4 6.2 4.6 5.0 6.0 4.1
Other and ill-defined 22.8 22.9 22.7 16.7 19.0 14.9

CNS, central nervous system. a)Age-adjusted using the world standard population, b)Includes the gallbladder and other/unspecified parts of the biliary tract.

Table 3
The 10 leading causes of death in Korea during 2010
The 10 leading causes of death in Korea during 2010
Rank Cause of death No. of deaths Deaths (%) Age-standardized death rate
per 100,000a)
All causes 255,405 100.0 344.8
1 Cancer 69,780 28.2 96.3
2 Cerebrovascular disease 25,838 10.4 33.3
3 Heart disease 22,347 9.2 30.1
4 Intentional self-harm (suicide) 15,413 6.1 23.4
5 Diabetes mellitus 9,757 4.1 13.1
6 Pneumonia 7,147 2.9 9.4
7 Chronic lower respiratory diseases 6,914 2.8 8.7
8 Disease of the liver 6,868 2.7 9.5
9 Transport accidents 6,324 2.7 10.8
10 Hypertensive diseases 4,749 1.9 6.0
Others 74,485 29.2 104.3

Source: Mortality data, 2010, Statistics Korea [1]. a)Age-adjusted using the world standard population.

Table 4
Crude and age-standardized cancer mortality rates during 2010 in Korea by sex
Site/Type Crude mortality rate per 100,000
Age-standardized mortality rate
per 100,000a)
Both Male Female Both Male Female
All sites 144.4 181.0 107.8 96.3 144.7 61.6
Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx 1.9 3.0 0.9 1.3 2.3 0.5
Esophagus 2.7 5.0 0.4 1.8 4.0 0.2
Stomach 20.1 26.1 14.1 13.2 20.7 7.8
Colon and rectum 15.3 17.3 13.3 10.1 14.0 7.3
Liver 22.5 33.4 11.5 15.4 25.8 6.6
Gallbladderb) 7.0 7.0 7.0 4.5 5.7 3.7
Pancreas 8.6 9.3 8.0 5.7 7.4 4.4
Larynx 0.8 1.5 0.1 0.5 1.2 0.1
Lung 31.3 45.7 16.9 20.5 36.6 9.1
Breast 3.7 0.0 7.5 2.6 0.0 5.0
Cervix uteri 1.9 - 3.8 1.3 - 2.3
Corpus uteri 0.4 - 0.9 0.3 - 0.6
Ovary 1.8 - 3.6 1.2 - 2.3
Prostate 2.7 5.3 - 1.6 4.6 -
Testis 0.0 0.0 - 0.0 0.0 -
Kidney 1.6 2.3 0.9 1.1 1.8 0.5
Bladder 2.2 3.3 1.1 1.4 2.8 0.5
Brain and CNS 2.4 2.6 2.2 1.8 2.2 1.4
Thyroid 0.7 0.4 1.1 0.5 0.3 0.5
Hodgkin lymphoma 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2.9 3.3 2.6 2.0 2.6 1.5
Multiple myeloma 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.0 1.3 0.8
Leukemia 3.2 3.7 2.8 2.5 3.1 1.9
Other and ill-defined 8.8 10.1 7.6 6.0 8.2 4.4

CNS, central nervous system. a)Age-adjusted using the world standard population, b)Includes the gallbladder and other/unspecified parts of the biliary tract.

Table 5
Trends in cancer incidence rates in both sexes during 1999-2010 in Korea
Site/Type Year
APC
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
All sites 210.5 205.1 216.7 220.1 227.4 234.5 247.3 251.4 262.3 274.5 284.6 286.4 3.3a)
Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx 3.6 4.4 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.9 0.2
Esophagus 4.1 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.1 -2.2a)
Stomach 43.6 42.3 44.0 43.6 43.2 41.1 44.4 42.8 41.7 42.5 43.3 41.8 -0.2
Colon and rectum 20.4 21.0 22.9 24.7 26.8 28.6 30.9 32.4 33.6 34.6 36.6 35.9 5.9a)
Liver 27.9 26.7 27.3 26.5 25.7 25.6 25.8 24.5 24.3 24.0 23.4 22.3 -1.8a)
Gallbladderb) 6.5 6.4 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.9 7.1 6.6 6.6 6.4 6.7 6.5 0.0
Pancreas 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.3 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.3 6.3 1.4a)
Larynx 2.3 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.6 -3.6a)
Lung 28.5 27.7 28.3 28.5 27.9 28.8 28.9 28.7 28.4 28.1 28.1 28.0 0.0
Breast 10.7 10.8 12.7 13.9 14.2 14.9 16.2 16.9 18.0 18.8 19.5 20.2 6.1a)
Cervix uteri 8.5 7.9 8.3 7.7 7.4 6.8 6.4 6.3 5.7 5.9 5.5 5.5 -4.3a)
Corpus uteri 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.4 2.6 2.5 6.0a)
Ovary 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.9 1.3a)
Prostate 3.1 2.7 3.6 3.9 4.8 6.0 6.3 7.3 8.6 9.7 10.5 10.7 14.3a)
Testis 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 4.0a)
Kidney 3.0 2.9 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.7 4.1 4.4 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.2 6.1a)
Bladder 4.6 4.6 4.9 4.7 5.1 5.1 5.1 4.9 5.0 4.8 4.5 4.6 -0.1
Brain and CNS 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0 0.8a)
Thyroid 6.3 6.1 7.9 9.5 12.8 17.2 20.7 25.4 32.8 41.3 47.9 52.7 24.2a)
Hodgkin lymphoma 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 4.6a)
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 4.5 4.2 4.5 4.6 4.9 5.3 5.3 5.5 5.5 5.6 6.1 6.0 3.3a)
Multiple myeloma 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 4.0a)
Leukemia 4.7 4.3 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.9 4.8 5.0 5.0 5.0 0.9a)
Other and ill-defined 14.3 13.5 13.9 13.5 15.1 15.2 16.1 16.0 17.0 16.9 16.8 16.7 -

APC, annual percentage change; CNS, central nervous system. APC was calculated using age-standardized incidence data based on the world standard population. a)Significantly different from zero (p<0.05), b)Includes the gallbladder and other/unspecified parts of the biliary tract.

Table 6
Trends in cancer incidence rates in males during 1999-2010 in Korea
Site/Type Year
APC
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
All sites 285.0 276.7 288.3 290.0 294.6 299.2 311.0 309.6 315.8 322.5 328.3 324.1 1.5a)
Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx 6.1 7.1 6.0 6.2 6.5 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.1 5.9 -0.5
Esophagus 8.8 8.0 8.3 8.2 7.7 7.7 7.6 7.2 6.9 7.0 6.6 6.4 -2.6a)
Stomach 66.2 65.0 67.2 66.6 65.9 62.3 66.9 65.3 63.0 64.3 64.8 62.3 -0.4a)
Colon and rectum 26.2 27.2 29.6 32.9 35.3 37.9 41.1 43.2 45.2 46.7 49.6 48.6 6.4a)
Liver 46.8 44.7 45.1 43.9 42.3 42.1 42.6 40.2 39.7 39.3 38.0 36.0 -2.1a)
Gallbladderb) 8.1 7.8 8.2 8.1 7.8 8.4 8.7 8.1 7.9 7.6 8.0 8.1 -0.1
Pancreas 7.8 7.6 7.6 7.9 7.7 8.0 8.3 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.1 7.9 0.6a)
Larynx 4.9 4.5 5.1 4.7 4.5 4.1 4.3 3.7 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.4 -3.6a)
Lung 51.4 49.8 51.1 51.0 49.9 50.8 50.8 49.2 48.7 47.5 47.3 46.5 -0.8a)
Breast 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 -1.6
Prostate 8.4 7.2 9.5 10.1 12.4 15.1 15.7 17.9 20.8 23.4 24.9 25.3 12.8a)
Testis 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 3.9a)
Kidney 4.5 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.2 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.4 7.6 7.8 5.8a)
Bladder 9.0 9.0 9.4 9.0 9.7 9.8 9.8 9.6 9.4 9.1 8.6 8.7 -0.3
Brain and CNS 3.2 3.1 3.1 2.9 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 1.0a)
Thyroid 2.1 1.9 2.4 2.7 3.7 4.8 5.9 7.5 10.0 13.3 15.5 18.3 24.8a)
Hodgkin lymphoma 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 3.7a)
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 5.8 5.5 5.8 5.8 6.2 6.6 6.5 6.9 7.0 6.8 7.4 7.1 2.5a)
Multiple myeloma 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.9 1.7 3.4a)
Leukemia 5.5 5.0 5.4 5.8 5.5 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 1.0a)
Other and ill-defined 17.9 16.5 16.8 16.5 18.4 18.2 19.2 18.7 20.1 19.6 19.7 19.0 -

APC was calculated using age-standardized incidence data based on the world standard population. APC, annual percentage change; CNS, central nervous system. a)Significantly different from zero (p<0.05), b)Includes the gallbladder and other/unspecified parts of the biliary tract.

Table 7
Trends in cancer incidence rates in females during 1999-2010 in Korea
Site/Type Year
APC
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
All sites 161.1 157.4 169.0 174.6 184.1 193.1 207.3 215.9 231.2 248.3 261.8 268.7 5.3a)
Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx 1.6 2.4 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8 2.1 1.0
Esophagus 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 -2.8a)
Stomach 26.7 25.2 26.2 26.3 25.9 24.7 26.8 25.0 24.7 25.1 25.6 24.9 -0.4
Colon and rectum 16.4 16.4 17.9 18.8 20.5 21.5 22.9 24.0 24.5 25.0 26.1 25.3 4.7a)
Liver 12.3 11.8 12.2 11.8 11.5 11.3 11.4 11.1 11.1 10.6 10.6 10.2 -1.6a)
Gallbladderb) 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.0 5.5 5.6 5.5 5.8 5.4 0.0
Pancreas 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.2 4.5 4.5 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.9 4.8 4.9 2.2a)
Larynx 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 -7.7a)
Lung 12.4 12.5 12.3 2.6 12.4 13.0 13.5 14.0 13.9 14.1 14.0 14.3 1.6a)
Breast 20.9 20.9 24.7 27.2 27.8 29.2 31.8 33.2 35.5 37.0 38.5 39.8 6.3a)
Cervix uteri 16.3 15.1 15.8 14.8 14.2 13.1 12.3 12.2 11.0 11.4 10.6 10.6 -4.2a)
Corpus uteri 2.8 2.6 3.0 3.3 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.7 5.1 5.0 6.2a)
Ovary 5.0 4.8 4.8 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.4 5.4 5.9 5.6 5.3 5.7 1.6a)
Kidney 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.5 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.0 6.0a)
Bladder 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.5 -0.7
Brain and CNS 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.6 0.5
Thyroid 10.4 10.1 13.2 16.2 21.8 29.5 35.3 43.2 55.5 69.3 80.4 87.4 24.2a)
Hodgkin lymphoma 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 5.9a)
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.9 4.1 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.7 5.0 5.0 4.3a)
Multiple myeloma 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 4.7a)
Leukemia 3.9 3.8 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.4 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.1 0.7a)
Other and ill-defined 11.8 11.5 11.8 11.5 12.7 13.0 13.8 14.0 14.6 14.8 14.6 14.9 -

APC was calculated using age-standardized incidence data based on the world standard population. APC, annual percentage change; CNS, central nervous system. a)Significantly different from zero (p<0.05), b)Includes the gallbladder and other/unspecified parts of the biliary tract.

Table 8
The five major sites of cancer incidence during 2010 in Korea by age group and sex
Rank Age (yr)
0-14 15-34 35-64 ≥65
Male
1 Leukemia Thyroid Stomach Lung
(5.1) (11.2) (95.2) (455.0)
2 Brain and CNS Leukemia Colon and rectum Stomach
(2.5) (3.1) (72.1) (433.2)
3 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Colon and rectum Liver Colon and rectum
(2.0) (2.7) (66.4) (340.6)
4 Kidney Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Thyroid Prostate
(0.5) (2.6) (42.9) (274.1)
5 Testis Stomach Lung Liver
(0.3) (2.6) (42.5) (199.3)
Female
1 Leukemia Thyroid Thyroid Colon and rectum
(3.6) (59.9) (209.8) (175.7)
2 Brain and CNS Breast Breast Stomach
(1.7) (10.0) (106.5) (162.2)
3 Ovary Cervix uteri Stomach Lung
(0.8) (5.6) (40.8) (121.5)
4 Thyroid Stomach Colon and rectum Thyroid
(0.7) (4.3) (40.5) (85.0)
5 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovary Cervix uteri Liver
(0.6) (3.0) (23.0) (77.8)

CNS, central nervous system.

Table 9
Trends in the 5-year relative survival rates (%) during 1993-2010 in Korea by year of diagnosis
Site/Type Both
Male
Female
1993-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 Changea) 1993-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 Changea) 1993-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 Changea)
All sites 41.2 44.0 53.7 64.1 22.9 31.7 35.3 45.2 55.4 23.7 53.4 55.3 63.9 73.3 19.9
Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx 41.1 46.7 54.1 60.1 19.0 35.8 41.1 49.3 56.3 20.5 58.1 63.8 67.7 70.2 12.1
Esophagus 12.7 15.2 21.1 29.4 16.7 11.8 14.3 20.4 28.7 16.9 23.7 24.2 29.5 36.8 13.1
Stomach 42.8 46.6 57.7 67.0 24.2 43.0 46.9 58.4 67.7 24.7 42.6 46.0 56.3 65.7 23.1
Colon and rectum 54.8 58.0 66.6 72.6 17.8 55.3 59.0 68.5 74.5 19.2 54.2 56.8 64.1 69.9 15.7
Liver 10.7 13.2 20.1 26.7 16.0 9.9 12.9 20.1 26.7 16.8 13.6 14.2 20.3 26.8 13.2
Gallbladderb) 17.3 19.7 22.8 26.7 9.4 16.6 20.3 23.3 27.9 11.3 18.0 19.1 22.3 25.5 7.5
Pancreas 9.4 7.6 8.0 8.0 -1.4 8.8 7.3 8.0 7.7 -1.1 10.1 8.1 8.1 8.3 -1.8
Larynx 59.7 62.3 66.1 72.3 12.6 60.2 62.8 66.7 72.7 12.5 55.4 57.8 58.2 66.0 10.6
Lung 11.3 12.7 16.2 19.7 8.4 10.4 11.6 14.9 17.5 7.1 14.2 16.2 19.7 25.4 11.2
Breast 77.9 83.2 88.5 91.0 13.1 75.1 85.6 87.0 89.6 14.5 78.0 83.2 88.5 91.0 13.0
Cervix uteri 77.5 80.0 81.2 80.2 2.7 - - - - - 77.5 80.0 81.2 80.2 2.7
Corpus uteri 81.5 81.8 84.6 86.2 4.7 - - - - - 81.5 81.8 84.6 86.2 4.7
Ovary 58.7 58.9 61.3 60.4 1.7 - - - - - 58.7 58.9 61.3 60.4 1.7
Prostate 55.9 67.2 80.1 90.2 34.3 55.9 67.2 80.1 90.2 34.3 - - - - -
Testis 85.4 90.4 90.6 92.5 7.1 85.4 90.4 90.6 92.5 7.1 - - - - -
Kidney 62.0 66.1 73.3 77.7 15.7 60.8 64.4 72.8 77.7 16.9 64.5 69.7 74.4 77.8 13.3
Bladder 69.1 73.1 75.5 76.3 7.2 70.0 74.8 77.3 78.3 8.3 65.5 66.3 68.5 68.4 2.9
Brain and CNS 38.5 39.0 40.5 42.6 4.1 37.2 37.5 39.9 41.4 4.2 40.2 40.7 41.2 44.0 3.8
Thyroid 94.2 94.9 98.3 99.8 5.6 87.2 89.5 95.8 99.8 12.6 95.4 95.9 98.7 99.7 4.3
Hodgkin lymphoma 68.0 71.2 76.7 80.8 12.8 67.6 68.1 74.7 80.4 12.8 68.6 77.4 80.6 81.4 12.8
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 46.6 50.8 59.9 64.9 18.3 45.3 48.9 58.0 63.2 17.9 48.7 53.5 62.3 67.0 18.3
Multiple myeloma 22.1 19.8 29.2 35.1 13.0 21.1 17.8 29.5 35.3 14.2 23.3 22.1 28.9 34.9 11.6
Leukemia 26.5 33.3 41.8 47.2 20.7 26.2 32.3 41.6 46.2 20.0 26.8 34.6 41.9 48.4 21.6
Other and ill-defined 42.1 45.9 55.6 64.2 22.1 37.4 42.4 52.0 60.4 23.0 47.4 50.0 59.6 68.1 20.7

CNS, central nervous system. a)Change in 5-year relative survival between 1993-1995 and 2006-2010 as a percentage. b)Includes the gallbladder and other/unspecified parts of the biliary tract.

Table 10
Crude and age-standardized rates of cancer prevalence on January 1, 2011 in Korea by sex
Site/Type Crude prevalence rate per 100,000a)
Age-standardized prevalenc rate
per 100,000b)
Both Male Female Both Male Female
All sites 1925.9 1739.0 2113.4 1370.9 1369.7 1446.7
Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx 28.0 37.9 18.1 20.2 29.3 12.4
Esophagus 12.6 22.8 2.5 8.8 18.0 1.5
Stomach 340.6 451.7 229.1 236.4 349.3 144.6
Colon and rectum 272.8 323.2 222.2 188.8 252.4 138.7
Liver 86.9 130.3 43.4 62.5 100.1 28.9
Gallbladderc) 24.8 25.4 24.1 16.9 20.0 14.6
Pancreas 11.2 12.2 10.2 7.8 9.6 6.4
Larynx 15.2 28.5 1.9 10.6 22.6 1.1
Lung 87.3 115.2 59.4 60.5 90.8 37.4
Breast 207.3 1.9 413.4 145.8 1.5 286.0
Cervix uteri 77.2 - 154.6 53.9 - 104.5
Corpus uteri 23.9 - 47.9 17.2 - 33.7
Ovary 23.6 - 47.3 17.7 - 34.9
Prostate 70.9 141.6 - 46.5 114.1 -
Testis 3.6 7.1 - 3.3 6.4 -
Kidney 40.5 54.6 26.4 29.5 42.3 18.4
Bladder 43.9 71.4 16.5 29.5 56.5 9.4
Brain and CNS 15.1 15.8 14.4 13.5 14.5 12.5
Thyroid 350.7 105.2 596.9 253.0 76.9 427.5
Hodgkin lymphoma 3.2 4.1 2.3 2.8 3.5 2.0
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 41.8 45.6 37.9 31.9 37.1 27.5
Multiple myeloma 6.2 6.5 5.8 4.4 5.0 3.8
Leukemia 24.6 27.2 22.1 24.2 27.0 21.5
Other and ill-defined 114.1 110.9 117.2 85.1 92.6 79.2

CNS, central nervous system. a)Crude prevalence rate: number of prevalent cases divided by the corresponding person-years of observation. Prevalent cases were defined as patients who were diagnosed between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2010 and who were alive on January 1, 2011. Multiple primary cancer cases were counted multiple times, b)Age-adjusted using the world standard population, c)Includes the gallbladder and other/unspecified parts of the biliary tract.

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